Peatlands, raised bogs, wetlands, dry meadows, glaciers, rivers, high mountain regions, forests, traditional cultural landscapes as e.g., orchard meadows etc. – the Alpine area offers a wide range of specific natural and cultural landscapes with a great importance for (endangered) species of the flora and fauna. They are subject to different impacts, climate change, abandonment of agricultural use or intensification, urbanisation, infrastructure, which make them vulnerable and demands specific actions including restoration of specific natural and cultural elements, biotopes, ecosystems etc. At the same time Alpine specific landscape and ecosystems – like pasture areas – and their sustainable management ensure the maintenance, resilience and promotion of biodiversity and thus the provision and restoration of important ecosystems and services. The protection and wise management of vulnerable and Alpine specific landscape and ecosystems are crucial tasks.
This implementation pathway is framed by existing regulations of the European Union as well as by the UNESCO Man and Biosphere programme. At the same time it takes into account the SDGs of the agenda 2030 (especially 2 – Zero Hunger and 15 – Life on Land), the AC Protocol on nature conservation and European Landscape Convention (ratified by Contracting Parties of the Alpine Convention (CH, FR, IT, SI).