Full protection from natural hazards and climate change impacts through public-financed protection measures will not be feasible, private households and economic stakeholders will have to develop additional risk precaution measures. Individual measures can include no-regret measures with co-benefits (e.g., passive cooling systems to deal with increasing heat and at the same time to support energy efficiency) but also protection measures for natural hazards (e.g., provision of sandbags to protect from flooding).
An Alpine-wide risk governance approach has the objective to give a stronger role to the civil society in risk management. To meet this objective, additional measures on awareness raising and capacity building are however necessary. Also, a coordination of individual measures through regional coordinators has the potential to trigger considerable activities through streamlining and making use of effects of scale.
The Alps are specifically prone to natural hazards with different scopes, including local events such as avalanches, rockfalls, torrential hazards and landslides as well as larger events like floods. A generally growing population and accumulation of human assets and settlements in hazard-prone areas as well as extreme events tend to increase natural hazard risk. As natural hazards do not stop at regional or national borders, an Alpine-wide common framework to deal with large-scale and potential cross- border impacts is required. Special consideration needs to be given to permafrost areas and potential risks related to permafrost instabilities as well as large-scale flood events with impacts on overall river basins - these natural hazards have the potential to lead to large-scale and cross-border impacts.
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